Blood loss, transfusions and transfusion alternatives - Causes, symptoms, treatment, diagnosis - (2023)

The facts

Blood carries oxygen and nutrients in tissues and organs and removes waste residues.It consists of several main components, including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma.Red blood cells and filling oxygen throughout the body.White white blood cells are part of their immune system and help combat the infection.

Blood cells are called in a watery and yellowish liquidPlasma,It also contains proteins that are partially responsible for blood coagulation and globulins that contribute to combating infections and disease.

There is about 4L to 5 L in the blood in the body.A rapid loss of large amounts of blood can lead to bass complications or deaths.Severe blood loss is usually treated with transfusion or transfusion alternatives such as medicines.


There are many possible causes of blood loss.Accidents, operations, birth, gastric ulcers and blood vessel ruptures can cause sudden blood loss.Severe menstrual bleeding, causing gradual blood loss over a long period of time.

Although all types of blood loss can cause complications, they are the large and rapid blood losses that occur during operation and trauma, which probably causes bass complications or deaths.The amount of blood loss that can lead to complications depends on the person of the person of the person.

The risk of a blood loss of a person who is severe enough to require transfusion during operation to request bleeding) and medications or herbs you can take (blood diluents like Varfarin* may increase the risk of bleeding).

Symptoms and complications

The effects of blood loss depend on a person's general health, lost blood and loss of bleeding.Bleeding can be internal or externalexternal bleeding, The blood leaves the body through a rupture on the skin (of a wound, trauma or operation) or a body opening, such as mouth, anus or vagina.internal bleedingBlood is lost from blood vessels, but remains in the body, which usually leads to swelling and pain.Internal and external bleeding of sleep can lead to serious complications.Inner bleeding may be harder to recognize and diagnose because bleeding is not visible.

The more blood is lost and the faster it is lost, the more severe the symptoms and complications are.

The symptoms of a blood loss are:

  • Abdominal pain or swelling (a symptom of internal bleeding)
  • Bleeding during operation
  • Bleeding from the mouth
  • Blood comes from a pause in the skin
  • Blood comes from the vagina (unexpected or much more than expected)
  • Blood in the chair (the chair can be black and face or red)
  • Blood in the urine (the urine can be pink, red or brownish)
  • Hematomas (a blue abundance is formed when there is blood under the skin)
  • Cold and damp skin
  • Dizziness, weakness or confusion
  • Faster and weak pulse
  • Pallor
  • Breathing
  • Vomit blood or material that looks like coffee outside

Blood loss complications are related to the roll that touches blood in the body (see above).If a lot of blood volume is lost, a known condition is knownHypovolemic shockmay occur.Hypovolroim shock is a medical emergency in which severe blood and liquid loss prevent the heart to pump sufficient blood to the body.In terms of invasion, the tissue cannot obtain sufficient oxygen, which leads to tissue damage and organs.If this the condition remains without treatment, it can be fatal.Complications may be more serious if people take blood diluents or people with bleeding disorders.


Doctors diagnose blood loss due to signs and symptoms, medical history and laboratory tests.In some cases, the presence and cause of blood loss are obvious.The doctor can also check other diseases, such as bleeding stomach ulcers.Doctors may also ask about the latest medicines or herbs they may have contributed to bleed.Blood tests may be necessary for the suspicious cause of bleeding.

Treatment and Prevention

The treatment of blood loss focuses on two areas: interrupting bleeding and the treatment of blood loss effects.The techniques used to end bleeding depend on the cause and place of bleeding.In the case of external bleeding, such as cuts and tears, direct pressure can be used by bandages or seams.In internal bleeding, surgery may be required.

Treatment for the purposes of blood loss depends on how much blood was lost.With the speed with which it was lost;and the medical conditions, medication and religious beliefs of the person.In case of light blood loss, treatment with liquids and medications is often sufficient.Due to a more severe blood loss, a transfusion or blood transfusion alternative is required.For religious reasons, a group of transfusion or blood transfusion.

Before transfusion, the recipient (the person receiving transfusion) tested his blood.Blood and blood products of a compatible donor (according to the blood group and other factors) are administered by an injection vein.Or platelets) that a person is absent.

As with any medical intervention, there are risks of blood transfusion.Blood transfusion are risks:

  • Transfusion reactions:If the donor's blood does not correspond correctly to the recipient's blood market or if accidentally given to the blood of the wrong person, there may be a serious illness, includingHemolysis(Reduction of red blood cells), kidney damage and even death.The risk of incompatible blood group transfusion is about 1 by 40,000.
  • infectious disease:Although the blood supply is completely examined, there is still a low risk that a virus (including HIV, Hepatitis and Western Null Virus), bacterial infections or parasitic blood transfusion will occur.Of 1 of 4,000,000.The risk of receiving hepatitis C is less than 1 at 2,800,000.
  • allergic reaction:Allergic reactions to transfused blood can be light and slightly treated or serious and possibly lead to death.The risk of a severe allergic reaction is about 1 of 40,000.

In health care, a person should be informed and treat treatment before treatment can be specified.

Because all medical therapies contain a certain degree of risk, patients make decisions about treatment after assessing the risks and advantages of their options.letter of acceptanceorconscious choice.Jeder "competent" patient (a person who has the mental ability to make his own treatment decisions, including an understanding of what may happen if he does not accept the proposed treatment) may refuse the treatment a doctor recommends, including blood transfusion.

Blood scarcity and greater awareness of the risks associated with blood transfusions have produced much research on alternatives to blood transfusions in the last decade.There are several alternatives to blood transfusions.Techniques are used.Many hospitals worldwide now have blood protection or medical and operational programs without blood.

MedicineIt can be used to stimulate the body to produce more blood cells.Erythropoietin is used to increase the body production of red blood cells through the body.or after surgery or after sudden blood loss.Special liquids, such as pentastic starch, saline or wrestling solution, can be used temporarily to be used to temporarily replace.

Devices such as blood rescue machines ("zellspar")It can help reduce blood loss during operation by collecting blood losses during operation, processing and return to the patient.Specialized Belision can cut the fabric while stopping bleeding (using heat, electric current or ultrasound vibrations).

Surgical techniques and planning before the operationIt can also reduce blood loss.Large operations can be divided into various small divisions, and new techniques such as laparoscopy reduce the need for large incisions.When planning before the operation, medication that increases the risk of bleeding is interrupted or reduced before operation, and other medications are taken to build the body's blood reserve.Donate and donate your own blood before surgery.Anesthesia on the blood screenIt can be used to reduce surgical bleeding.

Not all these transfusion alternatives are available or appropriate.As transfusions, there are transfusion risks.The risks and advantages of a treatment option vary for each person.

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