Loss of consciousness: an overview (2023)

The loss of consciousness (syncopes), which occurs shortly before the pharmaceutical transfer, is neither caused by allergy nor overdosing;

Von:Medical emergencies in the dental practice (seventh edition), 2015

Related terms:

  • Injury closed head
  • Lacunar admonien
  • Sexual deviation
  • concussion
  • Weakness
  • Hypotension
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Investigation of the victim of sexual assault

James R. Roberts MD, Facep, Faaem, facmt, enClinical procedures of Roberts and Hedges in emergency medicine and acute care, 2019

The unconscious victim and "sexual aggression that facilitates through drugs",

Alcohol and other drugs play an important role in many sexual aggression.Half of all sexual aggression concerns drug or alcohol intake.61In many cases, it is not clear whether a medication was taken voluntarily or whether the victim has been attacked.

Folk media have created public awareness of drugsRappalding threshold(Table 58.6).62Although dated rape medications are of great importance, extensive forensic tests in the United States show that only a minority of sexual assault concerns the suspect that increases the drink of a victim with a tablet, a capsule, dust, dust or drugs.liquid spirit.63A urine drug screen in the routine hospital is not sufficient to evaluate a victim of sexual aggression.Forensic laboratories generally offer an evaluation for several medication in a specific test for the victim of sexual aggression.Of all the substances that were facilitated by medication during sexual aggression, the type of calming or hypnotic medicine or a combination of both can be used to facilitate sexual aggression. People with high amounts of alcohol and caffeine (e.g. fourLoko [2017 Phusion Projects, Chicago IL]).63,64In the past decades, laboratory tests Fluntratepam and GHB have included sexual aggression, which was provided by drugs in about 3 to 5% of cases.Sixty-fiveFluntratepam is a benzodiazepine that is not available in the United States but is available in Mexico.It can be proven up to 3 weeks after taking the urine.Sixty-fiveIn the United States, GHB is a depression of the central nervous system that is prohibited nationwide and is only available for narcolepsia with the exception of Appendix 3, but users can easily be made by recipe such as the Xyrem medication (Pharmaceuticals PLC Jazz, Dublin, Ireland).Butanodiol and γ-butiractone.

It is often the last memory of the victim to use drugs or alcohol and then take another place going and to lack the intermediate memory.Some remember short activities that may indicate a kind of sexual acts.Victims may lack memory, but they want to "check" "sex. A medical examination should be carried out an integral part of these people. Without a history of the victim, Vulva and all holes (oral, vaginal and anal). In drugs that are used to facilitate sexual aggression, cannot be found in the laboratory tests of the routine hospital, and it may be impossible to distinguish the self -government of secret intake.

Traumatic brain injury, part I.

Tristán Bekinschtein, ... Facundo Mans, inHandbook for Clinical Neurology, 2015


ScharfLoss of consciousnessA fascinating scenario for theoretical and clinical research throws their patients with loss of consciousness to predict the clinical result.

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(Video) Understanding Traumatic Brain Injury


Terra M. Skirven OTR/L, CHT, INHand rehabilitation and upper extremity, 2021

Unconscious neuromuscular control

The late rehabilitation phase finally advances to the disorders or reactive exercises that are intended to improve the sensoriomotor, unconscious or forward -looking control of the limb.14The acquisition of conscious neuromuscular control for all muscles involved is an important prerequisite before these types of exercises are started.The final goal of these exercises is to improve global joint stability in the entire upper limb because it represents a continuous kinetic chain unit.69This type of exercise depends on the activation of complex neurophysiological sensori monoto control paths, which have produced and centrally regulated by cortical and cerebellar centers.14The fault exercises require fast activation or the KO control of several muscle groups that have to work optimally synchronously in order to create the stability of global dynamic joints.104These exercises are reserved for the final phases of propioception rehabilitation14,69Because they embody the highest functional training before a patient returns to a complete activity without restrictions.

The fault exercises of the upper extremities can be carried out by closed and open kinetic chain strategies that use several training equipment and devices available in stores.69The usual exercise equipment used in the clinic can include a weighted ball, Swiss ball, Bosu ball and handicraft devices (e.g. Flexar, body blade, gyroscope).105The use of this device induces reactive muscle activations and focuses on several functional movement patterns.The aim of improving the functional muscle resistance.69

The clinical selection of the closed or open chain must only depend on the patient's specific rehabilitation program.Therefore, closed and open chain training strategies can contribute to functional improvements depending on the functional goals of the patient.69An example of the interference exercise of the closed chain of the upper extremity is a wall of Switzerland or Switzerland, which in a script or anti -foil surrounds the wall and adding disorders that are directed by the therapist in several directions (therapistAbb. 99.9).Block of a patient's view could make these exercises even more difficult.Closed chain exercises can progress even more by putting the patient in such a way that he works more against the influence of gravity and progress on the ground.The proprioceptive exercises of the closed chain can also contain a foam cushion or a Bosu ball, which starts from double arm support positions (positions made of double arm (Abb. 99.10).106


Michael J. Aminoff, inAminoff electrod diagnosis in clinical neurology (sixth edition), 2012


Loss of consciousnessIt can occur due to diffuse cerebral hypoxia or ischemia.The clinical properties of a syncopal event can be similar to those of a seizure and certain seizures.Therefore, the possibility of syncopal episodes should be taken into account if a patient occurs with the late start of an obvious seizure disorder.Recent studies show that neurocardiogenic syncope continues to be incorrectly diagnosed as epilepsy.75And that such patients are often overwhelmed and treated inappropriately, which risks a fatal result.

During a syncopal episode, it is generally said that the EEG shows a diffuse slow behind.The restoration occurs in reverse order.In fact, EEG changes are more variable;In some cases there is no weakening of electromebral activity, while in other cases it develops electromebral calm with a low or no earlier change in the frequency of background rhythms.76,77The temporary relationship requires EEG changes to loss of consciousness is also variable.76Depending on part of the cause of the syncope.78

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Inhaled anesthetics: mechanisms of action

Michael A. Gropper MD, PhD andMiller Anestia, 2020


Compared to the other final points of anesthesia, research on the biological basis of anesthesia is induced, the lack of consciousness induced it develops effective deep monitors of anesthesia.These efforts reflect a growing interest and progress in the "science of consciousness" in general.49,50In addition, anesthetics are used as research instruments to solve the neuronal foundations of consciousness.

Loss of consciousness(or hypnosis) is a characteristic seal for the beginning of anesthesia.What is generally knownUnconstructions under anesthesiaIt could be described more precisely asMissing feedback,A disease that could also cover states of self -confidence without environmental awareness (as in sleep) or environmental awareness without remembering (for example, conscious amnesia in combination with neuromuscular paralysis during anesthesia induction).32,51

Numerous theories were advanced to explain the unconsciousness induced by anesthesia.In general, they can be divided into those that control the changes in the circuits of the brain stick that controls the excitement52,53Against changes "from top to bottom" in the talamocortical circuits that integrate information.54In fact, this distinction formed the basis for a recent proposal that theebenof conscience reflects processes from bottom to top, while thecontentsThe certain reflects processes from top to bottom, a term with intuitive attractiveness.55

(Video) Syncope overview

One of the most influential theories was the "integrated information theory of consciousness (IITC)" by Tononi,56This emphasizes the need for a simultaneous differentiation between the brain states and its integration into a coherent whole.57Drugs or diseases that suppress consciousness could work through any process.Other information base approaches use symbolic analysis,58Entropy transmission,59Chaostheorie,60and more.The extensive connectivity of the brain rortue and its hierarchical organization is particularly suitable for enabling a high degree of information integration into the human brain.Some brain areas have a "Club -Rico" gereration (ie high -connected nodes are preferably connected with other highly connected nodes), which has been proposed that it is optimal for the integration of information.61,62These centers are promising goals for the hypnotic effect of general anesthesia.

The anesthetics could work by interfering with the operational synchronicity and coherence of corticotalamic networks63and loss of the induced reaction capacity by Midazolam.64This breakdown of cortical connectivity instead of the pharmacological active ingredient of the environment could be the loss of loss of consciousness.Sixty-fiveUnconstruction would not be characterized by absence, but by the fragmentation of cortical processing.

Medium brain artery disease

Vijay K. Sharma, Lawrence K.S.Wong, enStroke (sixth edition), 2016

Loss of consciousness

In the interimLoss of consciousnessIt is rarely in the infarction of the MCA territory.It takes only 8.4% of the ischemic strokes at the beginning.130The delayed loss of consciousness occurs more frequently and often occurs 36 hours to 4 days after the hemisphs, which vary from the entire MCA area only into the frontotemporal region.131The decrease in consciousness is usually part of a large oneAbb. 24-11).

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Benjamin D. Roye MD, MPH, INChild secrets (fifth edition), 2011

149 Is it an athlete with a first brain breakdown with a higher risk of a second?

And.LOC with a brain opening is described with the risk of six times higher future brain intake compared to the brain and without LOC, "Second Impact" syndrome with the death of a second injury to an athlete who had suffered an initial shock of brainfrom which the athlete had not completely recovered.

Meehan Wp III, Bachur RG: Sport - -related brain shock,Pediatrics1123: 114–123, 2009.

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(Video) Introduction to Brain and Consciousness C.2 - Volition & Neurofeedback - The Readiness Potential

An annual global survey of new data and trends for unwanted drug reactions and interactions

B.C.P.Polak, inSide effects annual medication, 2008

Nervous system

Loss of consciousnessIt was reported in a patient who had received an intravenous apex for(20A)).

A 43-year-old healthy woman underwent photodynamic therapy and 2 minutes after the infusion of Vertorphines felt attack and nausea and then lost consciousness and had a tonic clonicus.did not breathe.

The authors believed that this incident could be due to a severe vasovagal reaction, but the underlying mechanisms were uncertain.

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Neurological aspects of the systemic disease part I.

Claudio L. Bassetti, enHandbook for Clinical Neurology, 2014

Clinical characteristics

Epileptic TLOC is one of the most important differential diagnostic considerations in patients with syncope or TLOC of unknown origin.Epileptic floc generally follows an aura.The following characteristics lay an epileptic etiology of TLOC (smooth "(TLOC (ETL Bank, 1997; Sheld e))

Unusual sensations of taste, smells, déjà vu or jamaais vu (although not specific for epilepsy; then consult the section on psychiatric disorders) that precedes the magic

Side swamp of the literal language (Abb. 13.8) (Although it can bite the tip of the tongue during the syncope)

Loss of consciousness: an overview (1)

Abb. 13.8Side tongue Dura in three patients with sudden transitory epileptic awareness.

Turn your head during the magic

Amnesia for spells

(Video) Overview of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

Extended confusion or sleepiness according to the magic.

Sweat and nausea that precedes the spells, and their frequent association with sitting or standing speak against an epileptic cause of smooth (Hoefnagels et al., 1991;Sheldon et al., 2002.Hoefnagels et al., 1991).You can present the tonic, tonic-clonic activities or other involuntary motor activities (Lempert et al., 1994b).It is assumed that these involuntary motor activities result from non -cortical areas that result from the disinhibition of the motor circuits of the brain tribe.Eye movements that include the descending nystagmus or the enforcement of the deviation of eye are also possible in syncope ((syncope) (((((((((((syncope)Lempert Y from Brevem, 1996.

The following forms of epilepsy can lead to smooth:

Epilepsy with generalized tonic attacks

Epilepsy with absence attacks

Epilepsy with temporary rag attacks

Various.Synkopal episodes were used in Panayiotopoulos syndrome (Kotomanidis et al., 2012).

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Changed consciousness states

J. Eric Piña-Garza MD, Kaitlin C. James MD, ENClinical pediatric neurology of Fenichel (eighth edition), 2019

Clinical characteristics

Loss of consciousnessIt is not always immediate;A clear time of several minutes can intervene between the lesion and the beginning of the neurological deterioration.The Glasgow coma scale quantifies the degree of reaction after head injuries (Tabla 2.2).The scores of 8 or less correlate well with serious injuries.

Acute cerebral swelling and intracranial bleeding cause clinical properties.The increase in intracranial pressure is always available and can lead to hernia if they are not controlled.Focal neurological deficits indicate intracerebral bleeding.

The mortality rates in children with serious head injuries are usually between 10% and 15% and have not changed significantly in the past ten years.Low mortality rates are sometimes associated with higher percentages of the survivors in chronic vegetative conditions.The duration of the Coma is the best guide to long -term morbidity.Permanent neurological deterioration is an expected result if Coma continues for a month or more.

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(Video) Introduction to Brain and Consciousness 3.2 - Attention - Early vs Late Selection


How do you explain loss of consciousness? ›

Loss of consciousness refers to a state in which an individual lacks normal awareness of self and the surrounding environment. The patient is not responsive and will not react to any activity or stimulation.

What is loss of unconsciousness? ›

When a person experiences a loss of consciousness, he or she is neither awake nor aware of the external environment. Loss of consciousness often is described as being "knocked out." Attempts to arouse an unconscious person to an alert province may not be successful.

What are the five stages of unconsciousness? ›

There are five stages of unconsciousness.
  • full consciousness with some impairment.
  • a minimally conscious state.
  • a confusional state.
  • a vegetative state.
  • a coma.

What does loss of consciousness feel like? ›

Dizziness. Sensation that you are going to lose consciousness within a few moments, including instability of the body (cannot remain standing correctly). Feeling of heat or a hot flush. At the beginning, a feeling of intense heat may be noted, particularly, in the face and neck.

What are the three stages of unconsciousness? ›

Conscious, Preconscious, and Unconscious.

What happens in the brain during unconsciousness? ›

“We found that during unconsciousness, disrupted connectivity in the brain and greater modularity are creating an environment that is inhospitable to the kind of efficient information transfer that is required for consciousness.”

What are the 2 major dangers of unconsciousness? ›

What are the complications of unconsciousness? Potential complications of being unconscious for a long period of time include coma and brain damage. A person who received CPR while unconscious may have broken or fractured ribs from the chest compressions.

What can cause a person to lose consciousness? ›

The common causes include:
  • Hyperventilation.
  • Dehydration.
  • Sudden force or straining.
  • Abnormal heart rhythm.
  • Low blood pressure.
  • Low blood sugar.
  • Lack of blood flow in the brain.
  • Seizure, stroke or transient ischemic attack.

What are the four levels of unconsciousness? ›

  • Unconscious incompetence (Ignorance) The individual does not understand or know how to do something and does not. ...
  • Conscious incompetence (Awareness) Though the individual does not understand or know how to do something, he or she. ...
  • Conscious competence (Learning) ...
  • Unconscious competence (Mastery)

How long can unconsciousness last? ›

It depends on the severity of the injury. If you lose consciousness briefly, and suffer a concussion, 75 to 90 percent of people will fully recover in a few months. But severe damage to the brain can cause unconsciousness for days, weeks, or even longer.

Does your heart stop when you are unconscious? ›

During cardiac arrest, a person's heart stops beating and they shortly become unconscious. Their breathing stops and organs cease to function. If CPR is not performed within two to three minutes of cardiac arrest, brain injury can occur and becomes worse the longer it takes for blood flow to be restored.

What level of consciousness is the most serious? ›

A coma is the most severe level of consciousness impairment.

What happens before you lose consciousness? ›

Some people know when they are going to faint because they have symptoms beforehand, such as feeling weak, nauseated, hot or dizzy. After they regain consciousness, they may feel confused, dizzy or ill for a while but recover fairly soon. A person who faints usually will not suffer any long-term health effects.

What is the difference between fainting and losing consciousness? ›

Fainting is not the same as being asleep or unconscious. When a person faints, it's usually temporary and the person can be revived in a few minutes. Someone who is unconsciousness, however, won't respond to attempts to revive him.

What part of the brain causes unconsciousness? ›

Unconsciousness is generally caused by a temporary or permanent impairment of either the reticular activating system in the brainstem, both cerebral hemispheres, or bilateral thalami.

What are the 5 steps for taking care of an unconscious patient? ›

What you need to do
  1. Step 1 of 5: Open the airway. Place one hand on the person's forehead and gently tilt their head back. ...
  2. Step 2 of 5: Check breathing. ...
  3. Step 3 of 5: Put them in the recovery position. ...
  4. Step 4 of 5: If you suspect spinal injury. ...
  5. Step 5 of 5: Call for help.
Jan 11, 2017

Can a person recover from unconsciousness? ›

People with brain injury will recover consciousness at a slow or fast rate, based on how severe their injury is. For people with very severe injuries, return of consciousness is a slow process. People with less severe injuries may move through the phases listed above quickly.

How long does it take to get brain damage from being unconscious? ›

Severe brain injury is usually defined as being a condition where the patient has been in an unconscious state for 6 hours or more, or a post-traumatic amnesia of 24 hours or more. These patients are likely to be hospitalised and receive rehabilitation once the acute phase has passed.

What are the two types of unconsciousness? ›

Bernie Brandchaft (2009), a respected American psychoanalyst summarises his thinking by making a distinction between three types of the unconscious.
  • 1 – The pre-reflective unconscious. Firstly, there is the pre-reflective unconscious. ...
  • 2 – Dynamic unconscious. The second type of unconscious is the dynamic unconscious.

What is the most common cause of a sudden loss of consciousness? ›

The most common reason for fainting is a sudden drop in blood pressure, which reduces blood flow and oxygen to the brain. There are many reasons why a drop in blood pressure could lead to a temporary loss of consciousness: Cardiac syncope: This type of syncope involves fainting due to a heart problem.

How do you treat an unconscious patient? ›

Unconsciousness, First Aid
  1. Check the person's airway, breathing, and circulation.
  2. If you do not think there is a spinal injury, put the person in the recovery position: Position the person lying face up. Turn the person's face toward you. ...
  3. Keep the person warm until emergency medical help arrives.

What to do after someone faints? ›

If someone else faints
  1. Position the person on his or her back. If there are no injuries and the person is breathing, raise the person's legs above heart level — about 12 inches (30 centimeters) — if possible. ...
  2. Check for breathing. If the person isn't breathing, begin CPR.

What causes sudden unresponsiveness? ›

Sudden unresponsiveness may be either transient or persistent, and may result from primary brain diseases or nonstructural systemic conditions. Life-threatening causes should always be discriminated from those more benign.

Should you go to the ER if you lose consciousness? ›

Go to the ER if you have: Any loss of consciousness or fainting. istockphoto ...even if you think it's just because you haven't eaten all day. It might be nothing, but it could also signal a heart or circulation problem or even a stroke. "There's no way to determine the cause on your own," says emergency physician Dr.

How do you describe patient level of consciousness? ›

To accurately determine LOC, use objective criteria, such as eye opening, motor response, and verbalization, both spontaneously and on command. These three criteria are used in the Glasgow Coma Scale, designed primarily for patients with impaired consciousness following brain injury.

How do you explain consciousness? ›

Consciousness is your individual awareness of your unique thoughts, memories, feelings, sensations, and environments. Essentially, your consciousness is your awareness of yourself and the world around you. This awareness is subjective and unique to you.

How do you assess the level of unconsciousness? ›

To determine if the patient is unconscious and unable to follow commands, use the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) to test eye opening, best motor response, and best verbal response. An unconscious patient is likely to open her eyes only in response to pain, if at all; obviously, you can't test her best verbal response at all.

How do you assess an unconscious patient? ›

  1. ABCs. The initial step in the evaluation of an unconscious patient is to evaluate for the basic signs of life. ...
  2. Responsiveness. The initial step is to evaluate for reactivity using objective measures. ...
  3. Pupils. ...
  4. Cranial Nerves. ...
  5. Motor Function. ...
  6. Neuroimaging. ...
  7. Lab Testing. ...
  8. Lumbar Puncture.


1. Re-introduction to the Eternal Right Brain
(SOUL Recovery with Consciousness of Love)
2. Time Course to Loss of Consciousness with Intravenous Anaesthetic Agents
(Adrenaline Memories)
3. Larissa Albantakis: Integrated Info. Theory of Consciousness
(Beyond Spacetime)
4. 2021's Breakthroughs in Neuroscience and Other Biology
(Quanta Magazine)
5. Syncope Overview | EMCert Module Mastery
(The Center for Medical Education)
6. Consciousness - Intro and Overview
(Dr. Brian Gendron)
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