Classical conditioning is a form of learning developed by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov in the early 1920s.ºCentury. It is also called Pavlovian conditioning because it was discovered by Pavlov. The way it works is that two different forms of stimuli are linked together to elicit a newly learned response. This form of psychology is now known as behaviorism, based on the idea that the environment can affect behavior and that all learning occurs through interactions with the environment.
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Psychology of Classical Conditioning: Pavlov's Dogs
If you've never heard of Pavlov, you probably won't.Pawlows Hunde.No, these were not his personal dogs that he kept as pets. These canines were experimental animals used to test his theory. Although he started with his dog Circa. In the late 1800s, Pavlov was working with dogs to find out why dogs salivate when fed and accidentally discovered the classic conditioning response. Pavlov had hypothesized that canines salivated when eating, and a small tube was inserted into his cheek to measure it. However, it turned out that over time the dogs started drooling before they were given the food. They salivated as they heard the footsteps of the person bringing the food.
After recording this response several times, Pavlov decided to try conditioning the dogs to a different stimulus and see if the salivary response could be learned. He used a metronome to see if the dogs salivated when they listened to him, and of course they didn't (before conditioning). However, when Pavlov introduced the metronome click every time the dogs were fed for several weeks, he attempted an experiment (during conditioning). He again introduced the metronome click to see if the dogs would start salivating, and they did, proving that his conditioned response was working (after conditioning). He switched to other stimuli to see if he could condition the dogs to other sounds, like the ringing of a bell, which worked just as well as footsteps and the click of a metronome.
So what does this mean for us humans? There isthree stagesclassical conditioning, i.e. before conditioning, during conditioning and after conditioning.
- before conditioningis when the unconditioned stimulus elicits an unconditioned response in a person. In other words, something in the environment produced an automatic response that is not learned (necessarily) and is a natural response. For example, the smell of vanilla can make you hungry or the chirping of birds can make you happy.
- during conditioningA stimulus that does not elicit a response is paired with an unconditional stimulus, making it the conditioned stimulus. For example, the smell of a particular perfume can be associated with a particular person who normally wears that perfume.
- After conditioningThe conditioned stimulus becomes associated with the unconditional stimulus and produces a new conditioned response.
Five Key Principles of Classical Conditioning Counseling
Behaviorists have discovered some phenomena related to classical conditioning that are essential to understanding the process itself. There are five key principles of classical conditioning, which include acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, stimulus generalization, and stimulus discrimination.
- acquisitionit is the first phase of learning when the response is established and reinforced. In this step, a neutral stimulus is repeatedly combined with an unconditional stimulus. This causes a person to associate the two and begin exhibiting behavior in response to the stimulus.
- die outIt is the stage when episodes of a conditioned response subside or disappear, which usually occurs when an unconditioned stimulus is no longer associated with an unconditioned stimulus. If you continue to remove the conditioned stimulus from the unconditional stimulus, the response disappears entirely.
- spontaneous recoveryit happens by itself, for no apparent reason. This is the learned response that suddenly returns after a period of extinction. For example, if you've trained a dog to drool when you ring a bell and then stop reinforcing that behavior, the response will eventually die. However, if after a while you ring the bell and the dog drools, this is spontaneous.
- stimulus generalizationis when the conditioned stimulus elicits a similar response after the original response has been established. In other words, the dog you've trained to drool when you ring a bell may also drool when it hears a similar sound, like a phone or doorbell.
- stimulus discriminationis the ability to separate a conditioned stimulus from other stimuli not associated with the unconditioned stimulus. For example, if the dog you trained to drool at the sound of a doorbell could distinguish that sound from other similar sounds, such as a doorbell or a phone ringing, that would be stimulus discrimination.
But Ivan Pavlov's classic conditioning research didn't stop with animals. Although it would be completely unethical to do so today, some of Pavlov's collaborators decided to apply his classical conditioning theory to humans. A behavioral scientist named John B. Watson and his student Rosalie Rayner decided to use a baby named Little Albert to try to condition the infant's fear response. He was nine months old at the time, and researchers showed Albert a variety of charms, including burning newspapers, masks, a monkey, a rabbit, and a white mouse.
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The white mouse
When little Albert was first introduced, he showed no fear of these charms because he had no idea what they were. However, when the child was next introduced to the white mouse,Watson or Raynerwould make a loud noise when hitting a steel pipe with a hammer. This scared the boy and made him cry. After doing this several times, little Albert would cry every time he saw the white mouse. In this case, the rat was the neutral stimulus, the loud noise was the unconditional response, fear was the unconditional response, the white rat was the conditioned stimulus, and again fear was the conditioned response.
criticism of the attempt
Curiously, the researchers found that it wasn't just the mouse that little Albert feared, as he began to fear many different white and furry objects as well. In spite ofLittle Albert's experimentwas one of the most famous in psychology and has been widely criticized in several psychology courses for various reasons. For example, it is unethical to inflict undue fear on a child just to make a point. Furthermore, Watson and Rayner did not carefully design or develop objective means for the process of evaluating Little Albert's reactions.
Classical conditioning and phobias
Similar to the Little Albert experiment, phobias and anxiety disorders can be caused by classical conditioning. For example, little Albert is afraid of other white or furry objects because he is afraid of the loud noise he hears when he sees the white mouse. ONEPhobiait is an irrational fear of a particular situation, activity, or object. An example is a person who is afraid to drive a car because they once had a panic or anxiety attack while driving. However, experts have found that people do not develop a phobia of anything. Although some people develop autophobia, people are more likely to develop a phobia of objects like bugs or spiders, or places like enclosed spaces or heights.
Classical conditioning and post-traumatic stress disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD)It is a serious anxiety disorder that can develop after a person has been exposed to a traumatic event such as a violent attack or assault, a natural disaster such as a flood or earthquake, severe abuse, or a terrorist attack. The condition usually occurs when a person develops a connection between things related to the traumatic event and the trauma itself. For example, a person with PTSD who has been exposed to war may become frightened at the sight of a military uniform. Because of classical conditioning, the person may have a panic attack when exposed or just thinking about the traumatic event. Knowing this, therapists and other mental health professionals have figured this outexpose the individualto the conditioned stimulus (military uniforms), often without the unconditional response (war), they can reduce their fear of uniforms.
Classic conditioning and addiction
So what is so important about classical conditioning in psychology? Classical conditioning is helpful in understanding how some types ofDrug addiction or addictionIt works out. For example, when someone takes a drug regularly for a long period of time, the body compensates to counteract the effects of the drug. In turn, the individual requires a larger amount of the substance to achieve the desired effect. In this example, it is the environmental response (conditioned stimuli) that causes your body to prepare for the drug (conditioned response).
If you have a mental disorder or just have concerns about your mental health, speak to a professional right away. They can help you determine whether or not you need treatment. Sometimes it can take a long time to get an appointment, but withterapia online, you can always speak to a professional. No appointment required.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
- What is a good example of classical conditioning?
One of the most famous examples of the classic state isExperiment by Pavlovwith dogs. In this famous experiment, Pavlov used the sound of a bell to tell the dogs when it was time for dinner. When the dogs heard the sound of the bell, they began to salivate. Eventually, the dogs salivated whenever they heard the bell ring, regardless of whether there was food or not.
It may seem that this is not the case for humans, but animal behavior is essentially not that different from ours. The three stages of classical conditioning still apply and can be used to help people overcome bad habits and conditioned fear.
- What are the 4 principles of classical conditioning?
There are actually 5 principles of classical conditioning. They are acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, stimulus generalization, and stimulus discrimination. The principles of classical conditioning are explained below along with some classical conditioning examples.
- Acquisition: The stage of classical conditioning that marks the beginning of the learning process.
- Extinction: If the conditioned stimulus is presented multiple times without the unconditional stimulus, eventually the conditioned response will no longer occur.
- Spontaneous Recovery: The stage of classical conditioning in which the previously extinguished response reappears without the unconditional stimulus. (A real-life example is when a former smoker smells smoke and feels like they are smoking.)
- Stimulus Generalization: Occurs when similar stimuli elicit the same response even though they are not the same. (A real world example is that as drivers we are trained to stop when we see red. This works for brake lights, traffic lights and stop signs, even if they are different shapes and sizes.)
- Stimulus Discrimination: This occurs when we can tell the difference between stimulus generalization and when a similar stimulus is presented, we don't respond to it in the same way. (A real-life example is when a dog barks at a doorbell but not at a ringing phone.)
These classic conditioning examples can show how classic conditioning can be applied in social psychology to help people with a variety of addictions and mental health disorders such as anxiety disorders.
- What are the 3 stages of classical conditioning?
The three stages of classical conditioning are before conditioning, during conditioning, and after conditioning.
- Before conditioning: An unconditional stimulus (UCS) produces an unconditional response.
- During conditioning: A neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditional stimulus (UCS), which then produces the conditioned stimulus. You learn to connect the two.
- After conditioning: The conditioned stimulus is presented and associated with the unconditional stimulus, which then produces a new conditioned response.
These stages of classical conditioning are demonstrated in Pavlov's experiment with dogs. Dogs begin with no natural response to the sound of the bell in relation to food. The bell is then inserted when the dogs are fed and rang each time.
The formerly neutral stimulus (the bell) is paired with the unconditional stimulus (food). The neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with the unconditional stimulus until it becomes the conditioned stimulus. When the formerly neutral stimulus eventually becomes the conditioned stimulus (the bell), it produces a new conditioned response (salivation).
- What types of classical conditioning are there?
There are 3 main types of classical conditioning:
- Delay conditioning: For example, Pavlov's dogs are rung until food is brought.
- Simultaneous conditioning: When the bell is rung at the same time as food is being removed.
- Track Conditioning: The bell rings for a specified time before the food comes out and goes off before the food comes.
Delay conditioning is usually the most effective.
- What are the characteristics of classical conditioning?
Classical conditioning is characterized by one stimulus reinforcing another stimulus to create a new stimulus, which then elicits a new response.
- How does classical conditioning work?
See above for a detailed description of classical conditioning using Pavlov's experiment with dogs.
- What are the 5 components of classical conditioning?
The five components of classical conditioning are:
- neutral stimulus
- unconditional attraction
- unconditional answer
- conditioned stimulus
- conditioned response
- How does conditioning affect behavior?
Operant conditioning can affect behavior by teaching humans or animals to respond in a certain way, producing a positive or negative consequence. The strength of the consequence determines how strong the reaction behavior is.
- What is classical conditioning in consumer behavior?
Many commercials use classical conditioning to entice consumers to buy their products. An example of this is a skin care commercial that only features models with flawless skin. It makes the consumer believe that with the product she could also have that skin type.
A psychological review of this practice shows that it is particularly effective because it appeals to a deeper part of your psyche.
- What is classical conditioning theory?
When a previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with an unconditional stimulus to produce a conditioned stimulus that results in a conditioned response. See detailed explanation above.
- What is another name for the psychology of conditioning?
It is also known as Pavlovian or responsive conditioning.
- Does conditioning affect emotions?
Absolutely. Negative emotions are most easily influenced by both operant conditioning and classical conditioning. In psychological assessments, one often sees a previously neutral stimulus transformed into a fear response, especially in phobias.
It also works for positive emotions. A classic example of conditioning is when you see someone you love in a crowd and instantly feel happy.
- What are the two types of conditioning?
Ötwo types of conditioningThese are operant conditioning and classical conditioning.
- What is conditioning in animal behavior?
There are two types of conditioning when it comes to animal behavior (and behavior in general!); classical conditioning and operant conditioning.
Classical conditioning is described in Pavlov's experiment with dogs. A previously neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditional stimulus to produce a conditional stimulus that results in a conditioned response.
Operant conditioning is when you learn a behavior by examining the consequences of that behavior. For example, if a dog urinates indoors and is verbally abused during training, it will learn to go outside to avoid discipline.
- How does classical conditioning affect learning?
A good example of this is how you develop phobias. For example, someone with an elevator phobia would have learned that phobia after being trapped in an elevator. They probably didn't start out with fear, something happened to instill that fear in them. The fear response was due to classical conditioning.
- What is an example of a conditioned response??
One of the best examples of a conditioned response is taste aversion. It's an unintentional example of classical conditioning combined with a fear response. If you eat a certain food or a certain restaurant and you get sick, you don't go back there.